BI 231 - Human Physiology and Anatomy
Immune System Study Guide

Compiled by Pat Bowne, Sherry Dollhopf,and Justin LaManna, 2007-11


The body must defend itself against injuries and invading organisms. To do this, it needs both immediate responses that will clean out infections and promote rapid healing and long-term responses that will remember infectious agents and prevent them from re-establishing themselves in the body.

Before class, make sure you:

Know what lymph vessels are and what they do

Know where red blood cells are made
Tutorials and reading assignment: Hemostasis tutorial
Blood typing tutorial
OPTIONAL - lymph and edema tutorial

OPTIONAL - immune response tutorial

Chapter 14: pp. 545-550 (blood clotting), 550-554 (blood typing)

Chapter 16: pp. 619-627 (lymphatic system), 629-637 (immune response)
What you should know for the assessment:

Where are platelets made?

How does your body control platelet formation?

Since the kidneys are always stimulating platelet formation, why isn't your body always making more and more platelets?

How is a clot formed?

NAME the two pathways down which bone marrow stem cells can go, and which adult cells result from each

What are the names and functions of the different leukocytes?

What are cell surface antigens? Which cell surface antigens are used in red blood cell typing?

For any blood type, you should be able to predict the compatible and incompatible blood types for transfusions.

What is lymph? What do lymph vessels do? What do lymph nodes do?

What are the antigen-presenting cells, and what do they do?

What are the functions of the different lymphocytes?

DESCRIBE the mechanism by which an antigen entering the body results in antibody production

What would happen to a person who did not have Th cells? Tc cells? B cells?

List of terms to know about the immune response

Practice Questions

1. A woman had breast cancer, and on biopsy the doctors discovered it had spread to several of her axillary lymph nodes. She had a radical mastectomy with removal of most of the left axillary lymph nodes.

While she was recovering, she had severe swelling of the axillary region. It was warm, red, and tender. She was given anti-inflammatory drugs that reduced the production of prostaglandins. What caused her signs and symptoms, and how did the drugs help? What kinds of white blood cells would you have found in her axillary region at this time?

After her recovery, she had to wear a pressure bandage on her left arm. Why must she wear this bandage, even though her left arm was not injured?

2. Mrs. A has developed AIDS, a disease in which Human Immunodeficiency Virus attacks the T-helper cells. She doesn't understand why this disease is so serious, when she had Mononucleosis before and it wasn't serious at all. She knows that mono also attacks the immune cells (the B cells).
Since AIDS and mono each attack only one subset of lymphocytes, why is AIDS so much more serious than mono?

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